Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Two of the most important things Essay Example Paper Two of the most important things Essay Introduction In marketing two of the most important things are the marketing segmentation and the marketing- mix. Even if you come up with a Ã¢â¬Å"gee-whizÃ¢â¬ product, if you do not use the right marketing ingredients the result can be devastating.Nowadays, Sony is the one of the most successfully growing electronic companies in the world but it cannot be attributed just to the technology and the innovation.SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing segmentation consists of four different lines: electronics (camera, computer, camcorder, TV, Walkman, MP3 players), Sony Music and Sony Pictures, digital entertainment (Play Station) and mobile phone (SonyEricsson).One of the biggest steps in SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s life was when the Sony Computer Entertainment sector was set up with the Play Station 1 (PS1) concept, and later developed with the Play Station 2 (PS2) concept.By the mid-1990s, the whole company was in a deep funk. Its profits had sunk from a high of $1,3 billion in 1992 to a loss of $3,3 billion in 1995. The s olution was the Play Station division in 1993. Less than 5-years later, the Play station business had grown to achieve an incredible 40% of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s $3 billion in operating profits and nowadays, it brings nearly half of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits and Sony owns the biggest share from this market in the world.So how was this success compromised?Task 1SEGMENTATIONSony endeavours to understand its customers as much as possible. The marketing segmentation makes the process more efficient and effective. It divides the market into small pieces and targets people who belong to the same group and feel the same desire for a product.Geographic:Sony visibly goes all out for to supply individual customers. The company concentrates its efforts in three key markets: USA, EU and Japan but it is also represented in 200 countries with support in 68 languages. Such a globally segmented market allows the organisation to focus specifically on the needs of their particular markets. The Sony Comput er Entertainment America (SCEA) has been set up by Sony to focus specifically on the USA market while the Sony Computer Entertainment Europe (SCEE) cares for the European consumers.A good example of how this has materialised is that its console and marketing of the product for the Japanese market. Sony focused on the fact that more than 20 million people have got high-speed internet connections and hence it offers PS2 with on-line function1. However, in the USA market the situation was different and they realised that the version did not have an on-line function.Mr. Jack Tretton, vice president of SCEA says: Ã¢â¬ Twenty per cent of customers choose the on-line PS2 and its eighty per cent buy the cheaper off-line product.Ã¢â¬ In the European market the EU member countries dominate, especially Western Europe. The major software writers are based in London, Paris, and Vienna to supply the huge game demand.Demographic:Gender- In the beginning, most software developed was specific t o the young male, like fighting and shooting games. Soon, however, Sony realised that it could benefit from the female members of society too. In 2004, it launched its innovation: the Eye Toy. It is a special camera which players can see themselves on the screen in real time and play table tennis, boxing, cleaning windows and drumming for example. This has been a success in 2003- 2.4 million pieces were sold. (Index 2004)Age- The PS1 console technically is inferior to the PS2 that it is also cheaper. It has fewer aggressive games so it is perfect for people age between 6 and 11. PS2 is more professional both in hardware and software hence the age segmentation is between 12 and 19.The newest Play Station console will probably be promoted in 2006 with special features. The processor might be implemented from the modernist IBM technology, which is used in the famous Power-Apple PC. It will also have internet modem so even adult players can find access the Internet playing on the networ k against each other.Psychographic:In Japan, Sony describes the Play Station 2 as an entirely new dohyou, using the Japanese world for sumo ring. Sometimes playing a game can mean more than just fun. People like playing and winning. It can be more serious even among adults. These people with achiever and ambitious personalities like to Ã¢â¬Å"challenge everythingÃ¢â¬ (EA GAMES- one of the biggest software producer company).Behavioural:Benefit- SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is based on the fact that it tries to persuade consumers that its brand offers the best quality for their money and it is different from the others.The new PS2 for example, is, super light compared to the other consoles, thus it is mobile and children can take it with them on holiday, for example. With the mobile concept, Sony tries to squeeze out NintendoÃ¢â¬â¢s palm consoles.Loyalty- The customers feel strong loyalty to the Play Station brand. First of all, it comes from the belief that the quality of the product and service satisfy the customers on a high level. Secondly, there is a correlation between the two consoles.Compatibility-The first generation of customers who grew up on PS1 prefer to buy PS2 because they can play with their old games on the new machine. This fact and the brand loyalty ensure that in the long run people become medium or even heavy users.Task 2 (A)MARKETING- MIXThe marketing- mix is the one of the most important things in marketing. The hardest thing is to find out the best mix from the existing ingredients.Product:Brand name- Sony always tries to persuade consumers that its brand offers the best quality for them. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to build a strong brand name to capture consumer loyalty and preference. The Sony name is synonymous with quality and value, while the Play Station name suggests the concept but it is clearly identified separately from the main brand.Hardware- The company spends huge amounts on research and development and is the first to prod uce products. When PS2 was first launched, Sony had made a machine, which was leading edge its features included a 128-bit processor called the Ã¢â¬Å"Emotion EngineÃ¢â¬ which was three times faster than a Pentium chip of the same vintage.Sony is the only company in the entertainment market which offers so many different designs of hardware: modern silver, serious black and futuristic transparent.The also produce more than 30 supplementary units.Software- From the beginning Play Station was developed in alliance with the biggest software companies such as, 3DO, EIDOS, NAMCO UBISOFT and EA GAMES. It made it able to produce much more software games in the early stages. Lately it has given it a big advantage when rivals want to step into the entertainment market. The key is the range of games- PS 1 and 2 offer more than 1500 games to its new consoles while Microsoft less than 500.Service and experience- Sony ranks customer care highly both before and after purchasing. In the main th is is delivered via the Internet through their very popular www.playstation.com homepage. The customers find product and technical advice, as well as being able to link into other PS customers to discuss matters. They can order and buy hardware and software support, play in networks and if somebody is registered in the database, they will receive special offers and a lot of useful information by e-mail. It brings the customers together and adds to the experience of being part of Play Station.Price:Sony used captive- product pricing for its launch, tried to sell its consoles on relatively cheap and make money on video games, hence it was able to reduce console pricing and increase its profit margin on games titles Ã¢â¬â to sixty-five per cent in 2002. (Index 2002)The PS2Ã¢â¬â¢s biggest rival was MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s X-Box consoles which were introduced in 2001 but it could not break into the market even though its price is $99 against PS2 which is $149. Sony reacted in 2003 with a new PS2 Satin Silver Edition and it increased sales by 15% because the new product wave was at the right time.MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s price strategy is simple, it tries to decrease the price. On the other hand, Sony offers its consoles with 2 free games to tempt costumers to buy rather than reduce its price and follow the rivals. Sony also has not entered the market at the low cost end, which its rivals have had to do in order to compete but have relied on its Ã¢â¬Å"QualityÃ¢â¬ image to support such a pricing strategy. It concentrates on the fact that people often think that if something is relatively cheap, it must be poor quality (even if it is not true).Place:Sony presents its Play Station concept in Asia, Europe, Africa, America and Australia.It promotes its consoles in specialist shops, supermarkets, particularly play shops and other similar places. Here costumers also can play with and test the new hardware and software with the available consoles.Every year the Play Station t ruck travels around America, hence an opportunity presents that customers are able to play and test the new games free in a futuristic surrounding.Promotion:The enterprise spends a lot of money on campaigns especially in the USA to squeeze out its biggest rival from the second biggest market2.Task 2 (A)THE U.S.PWhen first PS1 was launched in 1994, it was the right time to catch the new computer generation and create for them a new entertainment world. Ken Kutaragi dreamed up this new digital world. Kutaragi envisaged a computer business with personality, fun and emotion. After two yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ development engineers accomplished the creation of Play Station (PS1) with a totally new chip with a plastic shell. It was the first to combine a 32-bit processor, a graphics chip, and a decompression engine on the same piece of silicon, otherwise known as a system-on-a-chip. After this big step the entertainment project was launched. The whole concept was supported with product development a nd marketing knowledge on the highest level.SONY COMPUTER ENTERTAINMENT GROWTH IN REVENUES AND OPERATING PROFITS AS PERCENTAGE OF CORPORATE PROFITS,1995-1999 (IN BILLIONS OF YEN)95 96 97 98 99Sony Computer 35 201 408 700 760Entertainment RevenueSony Computer n/a (9) 57 117 137Entertainment OperatingIncomeSony Corporate (167) 235 370 520 339Operating Income(Gary Hamel- Leading the revolution (2000), p-172)Sony has created a different world. The Ã¢â¬Å"Play StationÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"See the world of SonyÃ¢â¬ slogans perfectly reflect how Sony wants people to enjoy themselves and feel something special: get an experience, win in their new life and more than that.In the business the Ã¢â¬Å"consumer is the kingÃ¢â¬ the golden rule is still the most important moment but in SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy it has been transformed.Akia Morito: Ã¢â¬Å"Our goal is to lead costumers where they want to go before they know where they want to go.Ã¢â¬ This is the real power of marketin g, when a company like Sony owns the intellectual property to lead their customers, hence the whole process is more comprehensible and predictable, that is why the strategy is more easily controlled, defended against rivals and monitored. Two of the most important things Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!
Posted by Unknown at 10:52 AM
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Will Rogers Will Rogers was a cowboy that did rope tricks. He was loved by the crowds that watched him. ?Onto the stage ambled a friendly-faced, tousled-haired man wearing a cowboy getup and carrying a collection of lassos in his hand. He smiled at the audience, then threw out one of the ropes, twirling it in a circle in preparation for one of the complicated rope tricks he was hired to perform. But as he went into the trick, he miscalculated the size of the small stage, and the rope whacked into the backdrop and fell to the ground with a loud thud. The audience was silent as the obviously embarrassed cowboy reached down and picked it up. Without a word, he tried the trick a second time. Again, the rope slammed loudly onto the stage floor. Show directors had a standard way of dealing with such a disasters-get the performer away from the audience as fast as possible, or ?give'em the hook? in the theater parlance. As the curtain came down on the rope twirler, Buck thought sadly that the curtain had probably been drawn on the young hopeful's career. To his surprise, the audience was thinking differently. Instead of hurling jeers and catcalls, people here and there began to clap, and soon the entire theater was filled with the sound of applauses. The curtain went back up, but when the audience saw another musical number was next, they booed and hooted, demanding the return of the clumsy cowboy. They did not care that he had botched his act-there was something so appealing about him that the audience just wanted to see more of him. -2 The curtain went back down; after a few tense moments, it rose again as the cowboy, his smile even broader this time out, sauntered back onstage. The act went well this time out, and the audience responded with a standing ovation. Buck was impressed. It did not take too much imagination to recognize that he had found a real crowd pleaser.?1 In 1915, Will was becoming a follies star. He quickly got bored of his act. ?By 1915, Rogers had become a staple of the vaudeville circuit. He had no trouble getting jobs, and his act inevitably drew raves from the critics and the public alike. Recognition and good pay were not quite enough for Rogers, however, for he quickly grew bored doing the same type of act over and over. A man of tremendous energy, Rogers always had to have new challenges in order to maintain the level of concentration he needed to be at his absolute best as a performer.?2 War World I helped Will's career. He became a cracker-box humorist. ?In the Follies his famous line, ?Well, all I know is what I read in the papers,? introduced new highlights which he learned to bring into homely but unexpected focus. ?I never told a story in my life,? he once said. ?What little humor I've got pertains to now.? What the Civil War had been to earlier cracker-box humorists, and the Spanish-American War to Mr. Dooley, the First World War became to the rising star of Will Rogers-and continued through its sequels from the Peace Conference (?The United States never lost a war or won a conference?) to the Coolidge bull market (?Two thirds of the people promote while one-third provide?). As a Westerner, Rogers understood the Virginian's famous formula, ?When you say that, smile!? With a jester's immunity he deflated rhetoric, buncombe, and group smugness; and surprisingly few tempers were lost. ?3 -3 Will started writhing newspaper articles in 1922. He was a popular writer. ? In November 1922 Rogers had begun a long series of weekly articles for The New York Times and the Times from London, July 29, 1926, about Lady Astor's visit to Manhattan, set the tradition of his daily telegram, one terse paragraph that curbed his genial wordiness and proved to be his most popular medium. Syndication carried it to some 350 newspapers, with an estimated 40,000,000 readers. Writing almost constantly of politics, and belonging nominally to the Democratic party (because ?it's funnier to be a Democrat?), Rogers wisely chose the nonpartisan point of view.?4 Will loved to travel. Even if it could cost him his life. ?In the late summer of 1935 he planned a flight north to the Orient with his fellow Oklahoman, Wiley Post [q.v.]. About fifteen miles from Point Barrow, Alaska, on Aug. 15, their monoplane developed engine trouble and, with an Eskimo hunter
Posted by Unknown at 2:06 PM
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Can You Retake AP Exams Expert Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Most AP tests are very challenging, and scores don't always turn out the way you imagined they would. If you're concerned that you've forfeited any chance of getting college credit, can you retake an AP exam?In this article, I'll show you how you can bounce back from a low AP score to end up with college credits and AP Scholar Awards. Can You Retake AP Exams If You Do Poorly? First off, can you retake an AP exam? The answer is yes! If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t do well on an AP exam, you can retake it the next time itÃ¢â¬â¢s offered the following May. However, you should consider this decision carefully before committing.If you score a 3 or above on an AP test, I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t recommend going for a retake unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re absolutely set on earning college credit for your work. Ultimately, your AP score will have minimal impact on your admission chances unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to the most selective colleges with 1s and 2s. According to theCollege Board FAQ, "When we surveyed admission officers, more than 75 percent indicated that a low score on an AP Exam would NOT harm an applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s admission prospects"(emphasis mine).In other words, the grade you earn in the year-long AP class is more important than areyour AP score for admissions purposes. Retaking AP tests is expensive; it will cost you an extra $94!It's also a pretty big time commitment to take on additional studying on top of a full course load. Really think about whether it's worth it before you settle on your decision. If you still feel sure that you want to retake the exam, speak to your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s AP Coordinator about registering.You cansign up through your school, just like you did the first time you took the test, except now your teacher won't be helping you through the process. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s completely up to you to track down the coordinator and make arrangements to take the test. If you want to retake an AP test, you gotta shed the training wheels and ride your big-girl bike over to the guidance office. If you really want to impress them, ride a unicycle. Do Both AP Scores Show Up? Which One Counts for AP Scholar Awards? Your score report will include all your AP scores (including repeats of the same test) unless you choose to withhold or cancel scores.The difference between withholding and canceling scores is that when you cancel your score, it is permanently deleted, as if you never even took the test.There is no fee for canceling a score. Here's theScore Cancellation Formyou would need to send to the College Board. On the other hand, if you choose to withhold your AP score, it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be seen by colleges, but it will stay on record in case you want to send it later.It costs $10 per score to withhold scores from colleges that you originally indicated on your answer sheet.HereÃ¢â¬â¢s theScore Withholding FormyouÃ¢â¬â¢d need to send to the College Board. The deadline for both withholding and canceling AP scores for tests you took is June 15.If you miss the deadline, all your scores will be sent to the colleges you indicated on your answer sheet. If you choose to retake an AP test, only your highest score will count toward AP Scholar Awards, even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t cancel or withhold your lower score.That means you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about your initial score ruining your chances at becoming an AP scholar if you show improvement on your second try. Never fear, you can still become a scholar with a sweet beard even if you get a low AP score the first time around. Study Tips for Retaking AP Exams Here are a few important tips to keep in mind as you prepare to retake an AP test. To be successful in improving your score, you'll need to assess your weaknesses critically and study strategically. #1: Understand Where You Went Wrong Last Time Your primary goal is to avoid repeating the mistakes you made on your first AP test.Think about why you did poorly and what you can do to prevent those pitfalls this time.Did you wait too long to start studying? Did you take unofficial practice tests that gave you an unrealistic idea of the testÃ¢â¬â¢s content or difficulty level? Did you rely completely on your class to carry you through the test and find your knowledge lacking?Whatever the case may be, do some reflection to figure out how you can fix these problems and redeem your score a second time around. You might consider tutoring if you think you did poorly because the subject as a whole was not your strong point or your teacher didn't do a good job of explaining the material.You could even ask one of your peers who did well on the test to give you some studying advice or tutor you on concepts youÃ¢â¬â¢re having trouble mastering on your own. #2: Get a High-Quality Review Book If youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to retake an AP test, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be just finishing up a year of studying the subject in class. As a result, notes and study materials might not be as readily available to you, and it will be harder to structure your time without a teacher and class schedule to guide you. You should get a review book that covers all the concepts in the course thoroughly so that you have an easy way to study content, plan out your time, and do practice questions.Think of it as a lighter version of self-studying.Usually, BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s books are a good option for more in-depth surveys of AP courses. #3: Start Studying Early One of your problems the first time around might have been that you ended up waiting until the last minute to study.Cramming is a bad idea for AP testssince they cover so much information and expect you to answer questions that require high-level critical thinking. You won't do yourself any favors by skimming the surface. Start studying at least a couple of months before you take the test.Ideally, you should review concepts throughout the year so that your memory stays fresh and you have time to correct whatever issues you had with the material originally. You should also take plenty of practice tests so you can keep tabs on your performance and make sure you're improving. Be the early bird. Get out there and catch your AP worm. Summary: Can You Retake AP Exams? You can choose to retake an AP test when itÃ¢â¬â¢s offered again the following year.If you really need college credit or are concerned about how a low score will look on your application, you might consider this option. Assuming you retake an AP test and get a better score, that score will be the one that counts toward AP Scholar awards.You can even choose to withhold or cancel your lower score if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want it to show up on your record. Taking an AP test a second time is an expensive commitment, so you should make sure you put some serious effort into studying for it.Try to learn from whatever problems you had the first time around, and avoid cramming or glossing over content areas you donÃ¢â¬â¢t quite understand. What's Next? Ideally, you'll get a high score on your test the first time around. To make sure that happens, read our five-step plan detailing the best way to study for AP exams. Practice tests are super important when preparing for AP exams. Learn more about where to find the best AP practice tests to use in your studying. It might be tough to take new AP classes on top of preparing for a retake. Find out how many AP classes you should take in high school and whether it's worth it to load up your schedule. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Posted by Unknown at 9:40 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Car Statisics - Research Proposal Example Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir was the first man to successfully build a two-stroke gas driven engine. He built a gas-driven-engine vehicle in 1862 which ran at a speed of 3 km per hour, which became highly popular and the type of which were frequently seen on the roads by 1865. Gottileb Damlier and Nicolas Otto worked together on the mission of devising a four stroke engine till they separated. Damlier then individually went on to create engines which could be used for cars as well as four-wheel horseless carriages. Several experiments continued all over the United States as Henry Ford started his experiment on a horseless carriage in 1860. He was successful in producing his first car which was a 'Quadricycle' in the year 1896, which was a gasoline engine powered by two cylinders. This marked the launch of the Ford Motor Company in the year 1903 following which he propelled his vehicle 'Model T Ford' to great heights of fame. He ceaselessly continued with his experiments and subsequently witnessed the production of the same model on the lines of 'moving assembly' thus was highly instrumental in the modern day mass production techniques of the current car companies. Did you know that the world's cheapest car the Tata Nano, only costs only 100,000 rupees or $2,500 (1,277) and is designed and manufactured in India by the automobile company Tata Motors The car is specifically designed as a "safe, affordable, all weather form of transport" for family use in India, the inspiration of which came to Ratan Tata from the observation of "families riding on two-wheelers - the father driving the scooter, his young kid standing in front of him, his wife seated behind him holding a little baby.". The four-door car is a five seater, 3.1m long, 1.5m wide and 1.6m high, has a 33bhp, 624cc engine at the rear and will go on sale later this year. The car does not have a power steering or electric windows but will offer the same in two deluxe models. It has no air conditioning, no electric windows and no power steering, but two deluxe models will be on offer. The Indian company Tata Motors will manufacture approximately 250,000 Nanos, popularly termed as the "Peopl e's car", and expects an annual demand of one million cars in India's domestic car market which is predicted to soar, gauging the country's fast growing economy and rapidly escalating consumer wealth and the expectation that Indian car sales are going to more than quadruple to $ 145 billion by the year 2016. Article 3 The worlds most expensive cars 1. Bugatti Veyron Did you know that the Bugatti Veyron, with a price of $1,192,057 or 1,000,000 is not only the world's most
Posted by Unknown at 5:54 AM
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Organizational analysis of the Nike Company - Research Paper Example Nike is no doubt a leading manufacturer and provider of sports goods and equipment throughout the world filled with hundreds of nations. The production facilities of the company are operating in distant parts of Bangladesh and India where employees are paid on an hourly basis (Leavy, 2004). The Nike as a company is the most suitable instance of an organization which has worked tremendously over the past few years to incorporate outsourcing within the very fabric of itself but recent problems with the company are originating within its strategic alignment with the outside world and external environment in a general way. The company is operating in order to provide state of the art gear for sportsmen and women all around the world. Nike is clearly feeling reluctant in terms of adopting change and therefore, lagging behind in the industry of footwear that is rapidly evolving in order to incorporate growing demands of the modern consumer. The company needs to design and market multipurpo se shoes so that public can use them in wide range of scenarios of life. Nike as an organization is serving a very specific and unique clientele in all regions of the world. Major KSIs are described as follows: -The international economic and fiscal pressures have caused people to drop their expenses on purchasing luxuries and as NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s products qualify as luxuries and therefore, they also took a notable hit as their global demand decreased. The reduction in demand for luxuries had been motivated.
Posted by Unknown at 5:01 AM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
More Import Permits If Not Enough Chicken Essay JITRA: The government will issue permits to import chicken only if there is a shortage. Deputy Agriculture and Agro-based Industry Minister Datuk Johari Baharom said this was unnecessary at the moment as there was a sufficient supply. There are enough chickens to meet demand for the fasting month and Hari Raya , he said after having sahur (predawn meal) with villagers in Kampung Teluk Malek here yesterday. The local chicken farms produce between 1.4 million to 1.5 million birds per day and demand for chicken is less than 1. 4 million daily. The government will monitor the supply of chicken to avoid any shortage in the market, especially during the festive season. He said the farm price of RM4.70 per kg imposed since the beginning of the fasting month was reasonable, especially when compared with price in neighboring countries. He added that transportation costs and increase in demand were the contributing factors to price increase. Adapted from New Straits Times, August 16, 2010 a) What is market equilibrium? With the aid of a diagram, explain how it is determined? (4 marks) b) With the aid of a diagram, show the effect of an increase in demand for chicken in the domestic market. (4 marks) c) Explain three (3) factors that may influence the supply of chicken in the domesticÃ market.Ã (6 marks) d) What happens to the price of chicken in the domestic market if our government issue more permits to import chicken? Draw a diagram to support your answer. (3 marks) e) Explain any two (2) possible factors that may influence the demand for chicken. (3 marks) Ã ©
Posted by Unknown at 5:32 PM
Friday, November 15, 2019
Maritime Shipping Industry in Mozambique Digital Marketing Research question: how does digital marketing can attract and retain customer for the maritime shipping industry in Mozambique? This era of digitalization have been proven to bring more opportunities to companies, especially nowadays where companies are running to a race to the data and the information and in the same time new ways to attract customers and retain them. One might think that Shipping companies are not able to get those opportunities since the area seems close to this technology. However, our data revealed that Even Mozambican shipping companies can indeed profit of the digital marketing in order to attract and retain customer this is in line with the finding reported by (Efthimios PoulisaÃ ¢Ãâ -, Konstantinos Poulisb and Lawrence Dooleyc 2013) they stated that Information communication technology (ICT) and Internet technologies not only have the potential to facilitate inter-organisational collaboration and communication but also offer organisations the potential to disrupt how their industry delivers value across its supply chain. Despite the lack of infrastructure and the decision maker reported by Mr Issa Baluch who stated that Evangelista, P., Sweeney, E. (2006). Technology usage in the supply chain Shipping companies in Mozambique has the possibilities to gain profit from digital marketing because a company should challenge itself to be creative and stay more competitive especially in the shipping industry , being innovative lead a company to face competition and gain from any economic growth , this is in line with the finding reported by (Jenssen Randoy, 2006) who stated Theory suggests that the ability to innovate is one of the most important factors for survival, competitiveness, economic growth and profit in individual shipping companies. With the impact of digital marketing, now companies can perform well with the use of selected social media, indeed platforms such as Facebook, twitter, Instagram, are well known for their freedom to accessing and engaging with customers, because there is not intermediaries between the customers and the company, this is also in the line with the findings reported by Zsolt, K, Miklos, S (2014) claiming that Maersk Line garnered over 1 million fans on Facebook, 40,000 followers on Twitter, and 22,000 on Instagram. They also launched and became active on other social media networks such as LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Google+ and created a social media home base for Maersk Line called Maersk Line Social that published articles and stories about the company in a less formal manner The example about Maersk can lead shipping companies in mozambique that any kind of companies has his chance when it comes to digital marketing, and the abilities of reaching ,engaging with customer and make profits of it depends on the faculty of a company to invest themselves in the digital marketing and get to master in order to get more profits and stay competitive in a higly competitive sector. the benefit of the use of digital marketing for the maritime shipping companies The data and information we have gathered from our interviewed and the respondents of our survey questionnaires all agreed about the fact that shipping companies can really benefit from the digital because firstly because its a company in the first place and secondly digital marketing is a tool that can allow companies to get more attention from customers. This coincide with the findings of loredana (2015) , he stated that many companies are interested to increase the use of the content marketing tool in their marketing policy, as they notice the limitations of the traditional marketing communication strategy, as well as the huge opportunities brought by digital marketing Many companies are indeed interested by the digital marketing as a an alternative tool from the traditional marketing but in order to run perfectly in the shipping industry, digital marketing must be used in a certain environment, Mr Issa Baluch stated that In a holistic environment, when I say holistic, I am incorporating the part of digital marketing in all the scheme of digitalization then its very important to attract and retain customer in the industry. In isolation, just doing this without digitalizing the rest of the supply chain in the company, I think its a problem and the problem is they must be a link between marketing, operations, finance. In our research weve discovered that most companies are afraid of digital marketing, this fear comes from two reasons, the first one is a generation , most shipping companies , the biggest one are in the area for a long time and for those who managed to survive without digital marketing, is hard to think that tool can bring so much opportunities. The second reason is some companies have a passive attitude toward digital media and they do the least effort just to be in the trend of digitalization and not actually invest themselves more in the process, companies are either not aware of what happens in the digital world or they just dont want to influence or redirect their current strategy, this is in line with the finding from (Jenssen, J.I., Randoy 2006) it stated that companies know that they can enhance their performance with the digital marketing but dont want to and dont wish to. In the same time, it can show that companies are afraid of the competition when it comes to digital marketing, they prefer adopting a passive attitude toward technology and also make less profit , because they dont want the competition to benchmark their strategy and do the same thing. There is a conflict here between being innovative technologically and attracts more customer and in the same being productive and competitive , and dont allows another companies to grasp their way to communicate and make profit , the best way is to say at a minimum level and keep his objectives too at the minimum. However regarding this matter, Mr Issa Baluch stated that as the history as taught us, those who have embarked on digitalization in other countries, they have been able to particularly retain customers because you have customer data bank, you have them hook at you, you can service them and its easy to gage the plus and the minus because they are with you We can say that digital marketing should be considered as a mean to gain visibility and attraction, it allows companies to be more efficient in his desire to attract more people in his whole vision and retain them with his philosophy and service. So we can say that the tool itself digital marketing can be beneficial to shipping companies in order to reach customers, after that step companies should capitalize on that attraction by using promotion of his services and advertising , in order to those opportunities to be well managed especially in the maritime area , digital marketing must be used into all the departments of a company in order to create a whole ecosystem, allowing customers to be followed on each step they pursued while reaching a company for his services, we are talking here from the marketing perspective, the finance perspective and the actual service. Now regarding the Mozambique, Digital marketing can be beneficial for the maritime shipping companies in Mozambique however before managing to capitalize on this attraction and retention, Mozambican companies must know how to use it, in order to get full advantages of what he can offer as opportunities. When we talk about opportunities, we refer to adjective, such as competitiveness, brand awareness etc. that allow companies to be on the edge of the technology and be more competitive with others companies. Regarding Africa and especially Mozambique, digital marketing can indeed be beneficial for the maritime shipping companies especially for the main reason that it can be handled online dont fully required a premium infrastructure at least in the beginning to perform, especially for platform such as ecommerce which is well spread around the country adding to that features related to online application such as online payment. However the limits can come quite rapid and the need of a required infrastructure in order to perform in a higher level. This kind of issue could be fixed by the willing of the Mozambique on the edge of technology and stay competitive. Mr Issa Baluch stated that Ecommerce in general is taking off, and its very big in other countries but in Africa it is wanted, it is still crippling, the reasons are the laws are not yet in part of the development We can considered that factor as a lack of taking advantage of an actual online potential for maritime companies and for the country as well. Shipping companies can benefit from the digital marketing in Mozambique, since digital is still considered a new tool, it requires investment, learning and mastering in order to perform well and get results wanted by companies. Weve discovered through our research that social media is one of the features of digital marketing that are the most used , communication through platform such as Facebook, YouTube and Instagram Digital marketing profit of the technological advantage on being able to use data to specify and targeted a customer need thanks to the data collection provided by those platform using complicated algorithm in order to be specific on what a customer really want to be satisfy in terms of product and services. The digital marketing can enhance and be profitable for the shipping company and industry if its implemented Through our research , weve discovered that companies have some reluctance to implement digital marketing in their marketing strategy , weve also discovered that these factors are from two origins : a generational issue, long time companies are afraid to reveal informations of their company because of the competition or simply because of the easy access of the information nowadays, sensible information can be leaked or competitors can take advantages of a flaw discovered online , finally they dont think its worthy. The second origin is due to a passive way to not get fully advantage of the digital marketing and in the same time , they dont have the requirements in order to master the knowhow, indeed digital marketing even though it seems to have simple features, it requires learning and mastering to perform well. Our main finding is that customers are the backbones of maritime companies, because it allowed them to be more creative and renew themselves regularly this is in line with the finding stating To understand a company and its products, consumers need to know what type of company they have to do with, as well as what values are associated with it and how its employees come to meet the customers needs (Denning 2011, 47) The customer orientation is a highly a discussed issue in the logic that shipping companies are not different from others companies from others sectors in the fact that they need customers to survive and their efforts should be directed customers of the maritime shipping companies. Customer orientation for the shipping company is an important matter because it defines their strategy and in term of digital marketing that can be also seen as a limit due to the fact that some companies are so eager to please their customer that it can influence their strategy in the end. However since customer orientation is different from the complexity of each customer, betting on please customers that way, can jeopardize the image of a company and sometimes there is no turning back to this kind of situation. Our finding reveal that companies that have a digital marketing face tend to attract more customers than the others companies which dont. Internet technologies are indeed an effective tool to engage with customers and in the same time to reduce cost, it shows that companies with a functional and regularly updated website attracts more customers and also provide more customer service, this is in line with the finding stated by Mr Issa Baluch saying that companies that are succeeding must have their hand on their website because this is the face of the company and then build on it This suggest that shipping companies which takes the step of digital have better responses to his customer , if they have an updated website in order to answer in the best way the need of the customer. Through our research, weve noticed that regarding the shipping maritime industry in Mozambique or in general, we have two types of company The one with an open minded philosophy and vision that embraces new technology such as digital marketing, learn how to use, and mastering it in order to perform well and make the most from it, make profits, have more visibility and brand awareness The second type which is a shipping company that think that invest in such strategies is worthless for the reasons quoted earlier ( fear, passive attitude etc) and would still survive the year despite the technological loss and potential that they can use in order to be so much more efficient and face the competition with more accuracy and efficiency. Propositions Companies can benefit from digital marketing in general however our research is focused on the shipping industry , and that complicates thing because according to our finding companies can survive without having to use and implement digital marketing in their strategy. The environment of the maritime industry allows companies with a portfolio of customer to be able to succeed without relying on other technology thats the reason why maritime industry is considered as a low technology sector compared to other sectors such as automotive. Thats why the subject was interesting to pursue, as reported by Efthimios P, Konstantinos P Lawrence D (2011) they stated that they explore the impact that the digital networked environment is having on the traditional service-based industry of freight shipping within global supply chains Although our data seems to fit to this particular subject however we have some propositions regarding the matter , we think that digital marketing would be beneficial for maritime shipping companies, especially to small one that need visibility in this volatile environment dominated by the big firms. I would be profitable for a company to implement digital marketing in his strategy, in order to profit to the digital tools that lead companies to communicate at all levels, because of the nature of his environment, shipping industry is highly competitive so digital marketing could be an alternative to grasp some markets parts especially in Mozambique where the big firms have the most of the market share and the small one have to share the remaining left. Social media should be better considered by maritime companies in Mozambique because when its mastered as the example of Maersk, it can bring several opportunities, however when misused or when a company doesnt know to used it, it could jeopardize the image of a brand or a company, that could fatal for a sector so competitive; thats why it should not be taken for granted otherwise the consequences could be bad and in the same time, a company could miss several opportunities to be more competitive. Countries such as Mozambique shows an increase level of technology use, via the spreading of smartphones and the development of online structure such as ecommerce and online payment, digital marketing would be a huge help to capitalize on those factors and could open the road to the use of other tools of the digital marketing such as the search engine media. According to our findings It would advantageous for maritime shipping industry to considered the use of email marketing as a way to communicate and engage with customer , they could add this tool to the social media to reach a bigger audience while staying professional. Limitations To give out a robust work on this domain, it would be useful to carry out a large study scale with more Mozambican companies, the real issue was since everything (survey and questionnaires) was made online , people tend to not answer to surveys , we could use more of people answering directly of survey questionnaire allowing us to gather more data We could also added to that, a case study related to the subject in order to compare between two different time, the time where the case study was published against a new recollection of data for the same area and the same subject We could also regret the lack of studies or essays regarding the digital marketing for the maritime shipping in Mozambique or Africa in general, most Africans countries can encounters the same issue and face the same challenges, so it could be an interesting way to improve thing for future generations. Given the importance of maritime shipping industry and also as the backbone of the commerce of some countries especially in Africa, the main implication from a research point of view is that further and more advanced investigations could be done in this field for Africa or a specific country in order to show that shipping companies can benefit from the use of digital marketing and can improve his visibility , and also can attract and retain customer even for this field , those facts can be applied to other fields as well.
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